Just eat meat.

Created by Michael Goldstein (@bitstein)

Vitamins

A Detailed Analysis of Nutrients, Anti-Nutrients and Bioavailability

Vitamin Levels in Human Tissue - Are Humans Deficient?

Generally vitamin levels were lower in sick people, and in the case of vitamin D3, the levels of the Komi herdsmen were almost twice as high as the levels of the Komi town dwellers. Vitamin B6 and biotin (Vitamin B7) were both lower in tumors as well. Regarding Vitamin A, B12, C, B6, B7 and B2, the studies were done on “normal” people, so it is not related to the vitamin levels of carnivorous humans. Vitamin A and B12 are great examples of the massive differences between the low end and the high end, and just how much Vitamin A, B12 (along with other vitamins not mentioned) the human body can store (I would be interested if anyone has any information on the vitamin/mineral levels in people like the Inuit/Komi herdsmen. Obviously the ones that eat their ancestral diet.) In comparison, those sick and ill usually had low vitamin A and B12 stores, making them even weaker. Low vitamin/minerals levels could be a potential cause for many diseases, while also hindering the person’s ability to heal said diseases.

Vitamin Vitamin Levels in Human Tissue
Vitamin A The vitamin A content of human liver tissue was determined in 363 autopsy samples. The sample comprised a total of 181 subjects dying after accidents and 182 dying from coronary heart disease among Singapore ethnic groups of both sexes. Of all the samples 16% contained less than 13,000 IU/100 grams (less than 200,000 IU in the entire liver.), 45% had 33,000-100,000 IU/100 grams (495,000-1,500,000 IU in the entire liver.), while 9% contained more than 167,000 IU/100 grams (more than 2,505,000 IU in the entire liver) and 1% of the subjects had concentrations above 333,333 IU/grams (concentrations above 4,999,995 IU in the entire liver, that’s one fifth the vitamin A content of Polar Bear liver!). The study concluded that the vitamin A status of all Singaporean ethnic groups is reasonably satisfactory, although vitamin A deficiency is not uncommon in the neighbouring populations.
Vitamin B12 Range and average values are reported for the vitamin B12 content of liver tissue obtained at autopsy from 132 individuals. The average value for all age groups was approximately 70 mcg/100 grams of wet tissues (1,050 mcg in the entire liver). In cirrhosis the average value was 26 mcg/100 grams of wet tissues (390 mcg in the entire liver). It was concluded that there are no apparent differences in vitamin B12 stores in the various age groups (although the highest values present were in humans over 40, contradicting this statement). The highest value in a single person was 141 mcg/100 grams of wet tissues (2,115 mcg in the entire liver), while the lowest was just 6 mcg/100 grams of wet tissues (90 mcg in the entire liver!, albeit in the case of cirrhosis). The study concluded that the amount of vitamin stored is relatively large in terms of requirement and is probably sufficient to last for a period of several years.
Vitamin C The tissues used for analysis were obtained from hospital autopsies and used within 24 hours after death. The quantities and relative distributions of vitamin C, found by direct chemical titration of human tissues from 67 hospital autopsies, were found to correspond fairly closely with data obtained from titration of guinea pig tissues. The general order according to concentration was adrenal, brain, pancreas, liver, spleen, kidney, lung, heart, muscle. In the younger age groups the thymus content was about as high as that of the pancreas. The average values ranged from about 55 mg/100 grams for adrenal tissue, down to about 4mg/100 grams for heart tissue. Individual cases varied from approximately 3 times higher than the average, down to less than 0.1 the average values. The average for each of the tissues from those under 10 years of age was distinctly higher than from those over 10 years of age. Approximately 20% of the cases gave evidence of a condition of latent scurvy. The highest amount of vitamin C present in a person in adrenal tissue was 130 mg/100 grams (3 months old), while the lowest was 2.7 mg/100 grams /70 year old. It should be noted that another person, just 6 years younger (64 year old), has levels of 70 mg/100 grams, indicating that the 70 year old was indeed deficient.
Vitamin B6 and Vitamin B7 (Biotin) The vitamin B6 content of 40 human malignant tumors and samples of human normal tissue was determined, as well as the biotin content of malignant tumors and 9 samples of human normal tissue. The vitamin B6 content of all malignant tumors, irrespective of origin, fell within a narrow range of 33 to 135 mcg/100 grams. This range was similar to that of those normal tissues having a low vitamin B6 content. The various normal tissues studied had a wide range of values, from 60 to 890 mcg/100 grams. The biotin content of all malignant tumors fell within the range of O to 16 mcg/100 grams, while the normal tissues had a range of 3 to 66 mcg/100 grams. The vitamin content of the neoplasms did not seem to bear any relation to the vitamin content of the surrounding normal tissue.
Vitamin D3 A study of the Inuit living in Greenland has found that the more western-type foods, such as fruits, vegetables, breads and pastries, milk and milk products, the local indigenous Inuits ate, the lower the vitamin D level in their blood was. And, conversely, the more traditional Inuit foods like meat and fat they consumed (that is, the more they retained the paleo-ketogenic diet), the higher the vitamin D level was in their blood. The Inuit had vitamin D3 levels of around 30 ng/ml. The vitamin D3 blood levels in the Komi living a traditional life in the tundra and those living in town showed a significant difference. The vitamin D levels of the Komi herdsmen were 28-32 ng/ml, while the vitamin D levels of the Komi town dwellers were around 18 ng/ml. The distribution of vitamin D and its metabolites in human tissues has been studied by the combined use of radioactive cholecalciferol and biological assays of antiricketic activity in tissue extracts. Injected radioactive cholecalciferol was cleared rapidly from the blood; unchanged vitamin D and various metabolites were detected subsequently in all tissues examined. The highest concentration of biological activity and radioactivity was in fat; this and, to a lesser extent, other tissues were shown to retain activity over a prolonged period of time.
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) Riboflavin was estimated by a fluorimetric method in the organs of 6 persons killed in accidents and presenting no apparent abnormalities. The values in fresh tissue were 1.8 to 2.8 mg/100 grams for liver, 1.3 to 1.7 mg/100 grams for heart, 0.3 to 0.4 mg/100 grams for lungs, 1.3 to 2.8 mg/100 grams for kidney and 0.3 to 1.2 mg/100 grams for brain.

A Detailed Analysis of Nutrients in Animal Foods

Below is a detailed analysis of the nutrient composition of different animal foods, showing that, indeed, animal foods can have higher absolute vitamin/mineral values and the advantage of a higher bioavailability in addition to being low inflammatory foods.

Nutrient Foods %DV per 100 grams from highest source
Vitamin A (retinol in animal foods, more bioavailable) Liver, eggs, kidneys, high quality fats,cod liver oil Liver (300-60000%DV NOTE: The higher end includes polar bear liver, which contains 15,000 – 30,000 units in each gram. You could technically eat polar bear liver by the grams and perhaps avoid adverse side effects, as a single teaspoon would “only” have 150,000 units (the reports of polar explorers dying were never confirmed, as the people that ate it that got sick recovered later on. Polar bear liver is also supposedly high in cadmium and arsenic in some cases, so it would probably be wise to only eat small amounts if you ever do try polar bear liver.) - Highest of all foods, including plants and mushrooms
Vitamin C Organs, blood, small amounts in muscle Spleen (75%DV, 10.5 times higher than an apple)
Vitamin D3(found only in animal foods) Organs, eggs, fish, high quality animal fats Cod liver oil (2500%DV), from entirely natural sources (10-400%DV) - Highest of all foods, including plants and mushrooms
Vitamin E High quality fats, eggs, organs (bone marrow) Similar amounts found in foods (10-20%DV)
Vitamin K2(Found only in fermented and animal foods) Fermented foods, organs, high quality fats, eggs Liver (150-500%DV) Can be increased by aging/fermenting any food
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) Organs, muscle, eggs Organs (10-70%DV)
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Organs, muscle, eggs Organs (up to 200%DV)
Vitamin B3 (Niacin) Organs, muscle, eggs Organs (up to 100%DV)
Vitamin B4 (Choline) Organs, muscle, eggs Egg yolk (up to 120%DV)
Vitamin B5 (Panthotenic Acid) Organs, muscle, eggs Organs (up to 100%DV)
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxal and pyridoxamine found only in animal foods) Organs, muscle, eggs, blood Organs (20-100%DV)
Vitamin B7 (Biotin, almost nonexistent in plants, except for yeast) All animal foods, highest in organs. Liver (57%DV)
Vitamin B8 (Inositol) Organ meats, found in smaller amounts in other animal foods. There is no official RDA for inositol, which is not recognized as a vitamin. It is also difficult to list recommended daily intakes, as it is made in the body.
Vitamin B9 (Folate) Organs, muscle, eggs Organs (up to 100%DV)
Vitamin B10 (PABA) Vitamin B10 is found abundantly in plant and animal sources. The rate at which humans need PABA or whether they require it at all seems to be highly debated, but it is commonly used in spite of this.
Vitamin B11 (PHGA) Vitamin B11 is present in both animal and plant kingdom. Highest sources are organs. Salicylic acid is an important beta hydroxy vitamin also known as Vitamin B11. It is a crystalline and organic acid. Salicylic acid is obtained from the metabolism of salicin. This vitamin is also found in plants where it plays role in the growth and development of the plants as well as in various other functions such as photosynthesis, ion uptake and in transpiration. It is synthesized in the human body by the phenylalanine amino acid.
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin, found only in animal foods) Organs, muscle, eggs Organs (up to 1500%DV) - Highest of all foods, including plants and mushrooms
Vitamin B13 (Orotic Acid) High in all meat. Vitamin B13 is not really recognized as a vitamin, since it is manufactured by the body by intestinal flora. It is primarily used for metabolization of folic acid and vitamin B12. It assists the absorption of essential nutrients especially calcium and magnesium and helps the production of genetic material. It may be beneficial after a heart attack and has been used in conditions such as multiple sclerosis and chronic hepatitis. It is also reported to prevent liver-related complications and premature aging.
Vitamin B14 Found in all meat (muscle, organs) and eggs. There is currently little knowledge about this vitamin B14. It was first isolated from wine. This vitamin is actually found to be a metabolite of xanthopterin. However, it was said by a biochemist Earl R. Norris xanthopterin was the Vitamin B14. It is thought to be similar to vitamin 10 and vitamin 11. It is very helpful in formation of cells of the body. It provide resistance to combat anemias. Vitamin B14 provide enhancement of anti tumor growth of protein such as pterin phosphate.
Vitamin B15 (Pangamic acid) Found in blood. Pangamic acid might serve as a methyl donor to help form certain amino acids. Vitamin B15 may play a role in glucose oxidation and cell respiration, says Elson M. Haas, M.D. and founder and director of the Preventative Medical Center of Marin. The claim is it may help hypoxia by increasing oxygen to the heart and other muscles. With vitamins C and E, vitamin B15 may act as an antioxidant, helping to protect cells from oxidation. Pangamic acid is also thought to stimulate the nervous system and promote liver function, which may contribute to detoxification.
Vitamin B16 (DMG) Physiologically, vitamin B-16 is a byproduct of choline. It circulates in your body in small amounts for only seconds at a time. You can find vitamin B-16 naturally in both animal and plant cells and in certain foods including liver. Vitamin B-16 is a derivative of the amino acid glycine; it has a similar chemical structure to a water-soluble vitamin. The structural formula of vitamin B-16 is (CH3)2NCH2COOH. In your body, your small intestine absorbs vitamin B-16, and then your liver converts it into other useful metabolites. Vitamin B-16 also functions as a building block to DNA, amino acids, neurotransmitters and hormones.
Betaine Organs, muscle, eggs Fish (%DV not established)
Calcium Bones, bone marrow, dairy, eggs, blood, smaller amount in other animal foods Bones (1000-3000%DV) - Highest of all foods, including plants and mushrooms
Iron (heme iron in animal foods, more bioavailable) Organs, muscle, eggs Spleen and blood(250%DV) - Highest of all foods, including plants and mushrooms
Magnesium All foods except pure fat Mollusks (70%DV)
Potassium All foods except pure fat Blood and spleen (10-15%DV)
Sodium All foods except pure fat Oysters, beacuse of seawater (30-100%DV), otherwise blood and spleen
Phosphorus All foods except pure fat Bones (500-1500%DV) - Highest of all foods, including plants and mushrooms
Copper Organs, muscle, eggs Liver (500-700%DV), otherwise mollusks (1000-1400%DV) - Highest of all foods, including plants and mushrooms
Zinc Organs, muscle, eggs, oysters Mollusks (1200%DV) - Highest of all foods, including plants and mushrooms
Selenium Organs, muscle, eggs Arctic mammal liver (potentially poisonous because of cadmium and arsenic, see vitamin A for details, 1000%DV), otherwise kidneys (200%DV) - Highest of all foods, including plants and mushrooms
Manganese Higher amounts in organs and oysters Organs and oysters(20%DV)
Iodine Muscle, organs, eggs Thyroid gland (10000%DV) - Highest of all foods, including plants and mushrooms
Chloride The highest source of chloride is salt, as only traces are found in most foods. All meat provides easily assimilated chloride. Lacto-fermented beverages and bone broths are usually cited as sources of chloride. Other sources include celery and coconut. 3400 mg is equal to 100%DV.
Sulphur (found mostly in animal foods) Scallops (570 mg per 100 grams) and lobsters (510 mg per 100 grams) are the best sources. High amounts found in organs (around 300 mg per 100 grams). Eggs, muscle and dairy also have relatively high amounts. Although there is no official RDA for sulfur, it is a critical nutrient. Daily intake is usually 800 to 900 milligrams of sulfur per day. Scallops (570 mg per 100 grams) and lobsters (510 mg per 100 grams) are the best sources. - Highest of all foods, including plants and mushrooms
Boron (found in higher levels in plants and fish, shellfish) All animal foods, higher in plants. There is no Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for boron since an essential biological role for it has not been identified. People consume varying amounts of boron depending on their diet. Diets considered to be high in boron provide approximately 3.25 mg of boron per 2000 kcal per day. Diets considered to be low in boron provide 0.25 mg of boron per 2000 kcal per day. Most meat contain 0.1 mg of boron per 100 grams. Fish and shellfish contain higher levels.
Chromium All animal foods. Egg yolks (152%DV), meat (50%DV) - Highest of all foods, including plants and mushrooms
Cobalt (requires vitamin B12 to be absorbed, which is found only in animal foods) A cobalt atom resides in the center of the vitamin B12 molecule. Despite green leafy vegetables having a cobalt content of 20-60 mcg/100 grams, while organs have 15-25 mcg/100 grams, it is assimilated only by intake of vitamin B12. Because of this, cobalt deficiency occurs most frequently in vegetarians and vegans. Cobalt are assimilated only by intake of vitamin B12, and not in its ionic or metallic form.Therefore, there is no clear recommended amounts of cobalt because there are just recommendations for vitamin B12.In this vitamin it is absorbed in the amount of 5-8 micrograms per day. Highest animal source are organ meats (15-25 mcg/100 grams)
Germanium Meat and dairy Germanium is a trace mineral with no Recommended Daily Amount (RDA) established.
Molybdenum Small amounts in eggs, dairy. Very small amounts in muscle. Higher in organs, very high in liver. Liver (125%DV)
Silicon (found mostly in plants, other than organs) Organ meats are quite a common source of silicon, while muscle, eggs and dairy is pretty low. In general higher in plants, with the exception of organs. There is no official recommended daily amount of silicon, but it is assumed that an adequate daily intake is 5 to 10 milligrams. In average diet is intaked only 1-1.5 milligrams a day, so it is recommended a higher intake of raw foods containing silicon or silicon supplements. Organ meats are the highest animal source.
Vanadium (found in highest amounts in Radishes, Dills and wheat grains. Other plant sources seem to be inferior to the animal sources) Organs, muscle, fish The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for vanadium has not been determined. Liver is the highest animal source.
Cholesterol (Found only in animal foods) All animal foods Brain (1000%DV) - Highest of all foods, including plants and mushrooms
DHA/EPA (Found only in animal foods) Fish roe, brain, high quality fats Fish roe (2-7 grams), brain (1 gram) - Highest of all foods, including plants and mushrooms
Vitamin F Better known as essential fatty acids, or EFAs, Vitamin F is composed of two types of fatty acids: linoleic and alpha-linolenic. The body cannot produce EFAs by itself, so you have to get them from food sources where they are known as unsaturated fatty acids or polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fish, high quality fats and meat, brain, fish roe, high quality eggs, high quality bone marrow all contain omega 3-s. Highest amounts in fish roe and brain.
CLA High in all meat, dairy and eggs  
CoQ10 Found in all foods, high levels in organs. Higher than in plants.  

A Detailed Analysis of Anti-Nutrients in Plants

Below is a detailed analysis of the anti-nutrient composition of different plant foods, showing why the majority of them can be inflammatory to anyone in high amounts, and to those particularly sensitive in low amounts.

Anti-Nutrient Foods Neutralization Negative Effects
Phytic acid Bran of grains and pseudo-grains, all kind of seeds, nuts, legumes, potatoes. Birds and ruminant animals: phytaseenzyme. Partially by soaking, cooking, fermenting, sprouting. Binding with minerals of food in the gut: deficiency of iron, zinc, calcium and other minerals. Reduces the digestibility of starches, proteins, and fats.
Lectins Grains, pseudo-grains, seeds, nuts, legumes, nightshade vegetables, diary, eggs. Cooking with seaweeds and mucilaginous vegetables (okra). Partially by soaking, boiling in water, fermenting, sprouting.Wheat, soy, peanuts and dried beans are the most resistant to neutralization. Leaky gut, neurodegenerative disease,inflammatory diseases, infectious and autoimmune diseases, blood clotting.
Saponins Legumes, pseudo-grains, potatoes, red wine. Different results in studies for soaking, cooking and fermentation. Cholesterol and bile. Leaky-gut, disturbs digestive enzymes.
Oligosaccharides Legumes Other animals: alpha-galactosidase. Sprouting, fermentation. Bacteria in the colon. Gas production.
Oxalates Grains bran, nuts, soy, spinach, rhubarb, swisschard, chocolate, black tea, some fruits and vegetables. Metabolite of fungus and dysbiotic flora. Metabolism of the amino acids glycine and serine, vitamin C and sugar. Partially by cooking. Binding with calcium: Calcium and magnesium deficiency, kidney stones, disturb digestive enzymes. Hyperoxaluria may play a significant role in autism, COPD/asthma, thyroid disease, fibromyalgia, interstitial cystitis, vulvodynia, depression, arthritis. Researchers believed that “Oxalate hyperabsorptionmay be the main reason for stone formation in more than half of the idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers”.
Cyanide Beans, manioc, and many fruit pits (such as apricot kernels and apple seeds). Cooking and phase II liver detox. Cerebral damage and lethargy.
Canavanine Alfalfa sprout. Cooking and phase II liver detox and kidneys. Abnormal blood cell counts, spleen enlargement, Lupus (if big amount of juice sprouts is taken).
Goitrogens Soy, peanuts and cruciferous vegetables. Cooking, fermenting. Hypothyroidism.
Tannins Legumes, some fruits and vegetables, tea, chocolate, wine, coffee, vinegar. Tannin-binding salivary proteins. Partially by soaking and cooking. About 90% by germination. Zinc and iron deficiency, decrease in both growth rate and body weight gain, perturbation of mineral absorption, inhibition of digestive enzymes, accelerate blood clotting, produce liver necrosis.
Trypsin inhibitor Grains and legumes. Partially by cooking, sprouting. Growth inhibition and pancreatitis.
Alpha-amylase inhibitor Grains, legumes, nuts skin, stevia leaves. Partially by cooking, sprouting. Dysbiosis (candidiasis). Deleterious histological changes to the pancreas.
Allicin and mustard oil Onions, shallots, leeks, chives, scallions, and garlic. Cooking and phase II liver detox. Bad breath, and bad body odor, indigestion, acid reflux, diarrhea, stomach pain, gas, anemia, reduced blood clotting of open wounds., allergic reactions, accidental abortions in humans. Disturbs a baby’s ability to breast feed.
Salicylates Berries and dried fruits, some vegetables, herbs and spices. Sulfotransferase enzyme. Same as medicines (aspirin): bleeding of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract, dyspepsia, skin reactions, liver toxicity, prolonged bleeding time, impaired kidney function, dizziness, mental confusion, allergic reactions.
Calcitriol, solanine, nicotine Green potatoes, egg plant, peppers, tomatoes, goji berries. Liver and kidneys. Calcinosis, muscle pain and tightness, morning stiffness, poor healing, arthritis, insomnia gall bladder problems.
Gluten All wheat, rye and barley plants.   Digestive problems, leaky gut syndrome or autoimmune disease, allergic reactions, and cognitive problems.
Chaconine Corn and plants of the Solanaceae family. Partially by cooking. Digestive issues.

The Bioavailability and Absorption of Nutrients in Animal and Plant Foods

Below is a detailed analysis of the bioavailability of different plant foods and animal foods, showing that plant forms of nutrients are inferior to animal ones, along with a lower bioavailability in many cases.

Nutrient Animal Form Plant Form
Vitamin A Retinol (100% bioavailability. Retinol is often found in foods that contain fat, which further increases absorption compared to Beta-Carotene) Beta-Carotene (must be converted into Retinol, 16.6% bioavailability if perfectly healthy, various digestive issues and diseases further reduce the conversion to Retinol; children, especially infants, don’t make the conversion at all. 0% bioavailability for infants and children)
Vitamin D D3 (100% bioavailability. D3 is often found in foods that contain fat, which further increases absorption compared to D2. Studies also shows that vitamin D3 offers a noticeable decrease in overall mortality, significantly surpassing D2 in reducing death rates from all causes) D2 (33% bioavailability)
Vitamin K K2 (100% bioavailability. Because of the FDA, it can’t be listed as Vitamin K in the Nutrition Facts Label per FDA. K2 is often found in foods that contain fat, which further increases absorption compared to K1. Studies show it is better at blood clotting, preventing bone fractures than K1, although more evidence is needed for certainty.) K1 (10% bioavailability. Vitamin K2’s long side chain allows it to circulate in the blood longer than K1. Where vitamin K1 may stay in the blood for several hours, some forms of K2 can remain in the blood for days. Some researchers believe that the longer circulation time of vitamin K2 allows it to be better used in tissues located throughout the body. Vitamin K1 is primarily transported to and used by the liver.)
Vitamin B6 Pyridoxal, Pyridoxamine and Pyridoxine ( Pyridoxamine, however, has some functions in the body that pyridoxine and pyridoxal do not. Pyridoxamine is a chelating agent. It can interact with and trap heavy metals. One of the causes of aging, especially in the skin, is the formation of “advanced glycation end-products.” Any cell in the body can become essentially sugar-coated by interaction with glucose from the bloodstream. In diabetics, of course, the problem is much worse, since there is more sugar in the bloodstream to “caramelize” cells. The sugar on these cells is not a problem until it begins to break down. The advanced glycation end-products release tremendous amounts of free radicals, so many that the cell’s energy center, the mitochondria, “burn out” when they use oxygen to make energy. The cell dies, and when enough cells die, tissues and organs don’t function as well. This is the underlying chemical process beneath wrinkling, cataracts, atherosclerosis, certain kinds of kidney failure, the complications of diabetes, and possibly Alzheimer’s disease (although there are other kinds of cell destruction also involved in Alzheimer’s). Stopping the formation of advanced glycation end products, if started soon enough, stops these diseases of aging. That’s where pyridoxamine comes in. It stops a kind of chemical reaction known as the Maillard reaction. You may not know the chemistry, but you have definitely seen a Maillard reaction in the real world. This combination of sugars and amino acids is what makes toast brown, or tater tots crunchy when they’ve been fried, or puts the “burn” on roasted meat or barbecue, or gives maple syrup its brown color. At a cellular level, pyridoxamine keeps your cells from becoming toast.) Pyridoxine ( It’s important to note, that the pyridoxine available in plant sources often has a low bioavailability (the vitamin is bounded to protein, resulting in the inefficient delivery to its site of action in the body). For this reason, it is better to choose food sources of animal origin if you need to increase your vitamin B6 intake.)
Vitamin B12 Found in large amounts in animal foods. Not found in plant foods.
Iron Heme Iron (100% Bioavailability) Non-Heme Iron ( 5.9-57% bioavailability, food high in heme iron and Vitamin C can improve your body’s ability to absorb non-heme iron. Phytic acid and tannins in plants reduce absorption.)
Creatine Most of it is stored in muscles, but significant amounts are also concentrated in the brain. (Improvements in physical performance and improvements in brain function). Not found in plant foods.
Carnosine Carnosine is an antioxidant that is concentrated in the muscles and brain (It is very important for muscle function, and high levels of carnosine in muscles are linked with reduced muscle fatigue and improved performance) Not found in plant foods.
Taurine Taurine is a sulfur compound found in various body tissues, the muscles and organs. (Taurine may have various benefits for heart health such as lowering cholesterol and blood pressure). Taurine is only found in animal foods such as fish, seafood, meat, poultry and dairy products. Not found in plant foods. Small amounts are produced by the body. However, dietary taurine may play a major role in the maintenance of taurine levels in the body. Levels of taurine are significantly lower in vegans than in meat eater.
Cholesterol Found in all foods, very high in organs, eggs ,fish roe. Highest in brain. Not found in plant foods.
DHA Brain and fish roe are the highest source. Other high quality fats , eggs and dairy contain DHA. (It is important for normal brain development and function, deficiency in DHA can have adverse effects on mental health and brain function, especially in children. In addition, inadequate DHA intake in pregnant women may adversely affect brain development in the child. DHA can increase concentration, reduce memory loss and improve your cognitive function. DHA can reduce your risk of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Those who get more DHA into their diet, are less prone to stress, depression, and anger. A lot of studies have been done for those prone to stress, depression, and angry. Those who got more DHA into their diet have shown improvement.) Not found in plant foods. In the body, DHA can also be made from the omega-3 fatty acid ALA, which is found in high amounts in flaxseeds, chia seeds and walnuts. However, the conversion of ALA to DHA is very inefficient (3-10% at most. With a diet rich in n-6 PUFA, conversion is reduced by 40 to 50%, so only around 1.5% to 5% at most.) For this reason, vegetarians and vegans often have much lower DHA levels than meat eaters.
Calcium Found in animal and plant foods. (Highest animal source are bones/bone meal, bone marrow, eggs and dairy second). Found in animal and plant foods. ( Phytic acid in plants and oxalates reduce absorption, can cause Calcium Oxalate kidney stones).
Zinc Found in animal and plant foods. (Mollusks are the highest animal source) Found in animal and plant foods. (Phytic acid and tannins in plants reduce Zinc absorption)
Magnesium Found in animal and plant foods. (Mollusks are the highest animal source) Found in animal and plant foods. (Oxalates and phytic acid in plants reduce Magnesium absorption).
Copper and Phosphorus Found in animal and plant foods. (Mollusks are the highest animal source, second is liver. For phosphorus, the highest source is bones/bone meal) Found in animal and plant foods. (Phytic acid in plants reduce Copper and Phosphorus absorption).

Resources

Vitamin Levels in Human Tissue - Are Humans Deficient?

A Detailed Analysis of Nutrients in Animal Foods

A Detailed Analysis of Anti-Nutrients in Plants

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